Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults
In pain after shingles, 3 in 10 people had pain reduced by half or more with gabapentin and 2 in 10 with placebo. The pain was reduced by a third or more for 5 in 10 with gabapentin and 3 in 10 with placebo. In pain caused by diabetes, 4 in 10 people had pain reduced by half or more with gabapentin and 2 in 10 with placebo. The pain was reduced by a third or more for 5 in 10 with gabapentin and 4 in 10 with placebo. There was no reliable evidence for any other type of neuropathic pain.
Side effects were more common with gabapentin (6 in 10) than with placebo (5 in 10). Dizziness, sleepiness, water retention, and problems with walking each occurred in about 1 in 10 people who took gabapentin. Serious side effects were uncommon, and not different between gabapentin and placebo. Slightly more people taking gabapentin stopped taking it because of side effects.
Gabapentin is helpful for some people with chronic neuropathic pain. It is not possible to know beforehand who will benefit and who will not. Current knowledge suggests that a short trial is the best way of telling.
Quality of the evidence
The evidence was mostly of moderate quality. This means that the research provides a good indication of the likely effect. The likelihood that the effect will be substantially different is moderate.